- 1 Indledning
- 2 Principles for terms and definitions
- 3 General terms
- 4 Terms describing epileptic seizure semiology
- 5 Kilde
Denne artikel er en gengivelse af epilepsi terminologi fra ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) 2001. Jeg har ladet alle ordforklaringer forblive på engelsk for at undgå forvirring af begreberne.
Principles for terms and definitions
In developing the “lexique” of this report, the following principles have been adopted and applied. Terms and definitions should
- Contain features that distinguish or modify seizure entities.
- Be descriptive of the phenomena involved.
- Comply with terminology of clinical neuroscience.
- Use current terminology and definitions wherever possible.
- Contain new terms only if necessary.
- Be easily translatable to other languages.
- Be readily understood and used by potential users.
That branch of linguistics concerned with signs and symptoms.
2. EPILEPTIC SEIZURE
Manifestation(s) of epileptic (excessive and/or hyper- synchronous), usually self-limited activity of neurons in the brain.
A sudden neurologic occurrence such as a stroke or an epileptic seizure.
- Epileptic Disorder: A chronic neurologic condition characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures.
- Epilepsies: Those conditions involving chronic recurrent epileptic seizures that can be considered epileptic disorders.
5. FOCAL (syn. partial),
A seizure whose initial semiology indicates, or is consistent with, initial activation of only part of one cerebral hemisphere.
6. GENERALIZED (syn. bilateral)
A seizure whose initial semiology indicates, or is consistent with, more than minimal involvement of both cerebral hemispheres.
Primarily a lay term. Episodes of excessive, abnormal muscle contractions, usually bilateral, which may be sustained or interrupted.
Terms describing epileptic seizure semiology
These are descriptors of seizures unless specified otherwise.
Involves musculature in any form. The motor event could consist of an increase (positive) or decrease (negative) in muscle contraction to produce a movement. Unless noted, the following terms are adjectives modifying “motor seizure” or “seizure” (e.g., “tonic motor seizure or dystonic seizure”), and whose definitions can usually be understood as prefaced by “refers to . . .”.
A single type of contraction of a muscle or group of muscles that is usually stereotyped and not decomposable into phases. (However, see tonic–clonic, an elementary motor sequence).
A sustained increase in muscle contraction lasting a few seconds to minutes.
18.104.22.168 EPILEPTIC SPASM (Formerly Infantile Spasm)
Noun: A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension–flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not so sustained as a tonic seizure (i.e., ∼1 s). Limited forms may occur: grimacing, head nodding. Epileptic spasms frequently occur in clusters.
Adoption of a posture that may be bilaterally symmetric or asymmetric (as in a “fencing posture”).
A sustained, forced conjugate ocular, cephalic, and/or truncal rotation or lateral deviation from the midline.
Sustained contractions of both agonist and antagonist muscles producing athetoid or twisting movements, which, when prolonged, may produce abnormal postures.
1.1.2 MYOCLONIC (adjective); MYOCLONUS (noun)
Sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction(s) of muscles(s) or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal).
22.214.171.124 NEGATIVE MYOCLONIC
Interruption of tonic muscular activity for <500 ms without evidence of preceding myoclonia.
Myoclonus that is regularly repetitive, involves the same muscle groups, at a frequency of 2–3 c/s, and is prolonged. Synonym: rhythmic myoclonus.
126.96.36.199.1 JACKSONIAN MARCH
Noun: Traditional term indicating spread of clonic movements through contiguous body parts unilaterally.
A sequence consisting of a tonic followed by a clonic phase. Variants such as clonic–tonic–clonic may be seen.
188.8.131.52 GENERALIZED TONIC–CLONIC SEIZURE (syn. bilateral tonic–clonic seizure) (Formerly “Grand Mal” Seizure)
Noun: Bilateral symmetric tonic contraction and then bilateral clonic contractions of somatic muscles, usually associated with autonomic phenomena.
Sudden loss or diminution of muscle tone without apparent preceding myoclonic or tonic event lasting 1 to 2 s, involving head, trunk, jaw, or limb musculature.
Loss of erect posture that results from an atonic, myoclonic, or tonic mechanism. Synonym: drop attack.
1.1.6 SYNCHRONOUS (Asynchronous)
Motor events occurring (not) at the same time or at the same rate in sets of body parts.
Noun: A more or less coordinated, repetitive, motor activity usually occurring when cognition is impaired and for which the subject is usually amnesic afterward. This often resembles a voluntary movement and may consist of an inappropriate continuation of ongoing preictal motor activity.
The following adjectives are usually employed to modify “automatism.”
Lip smacking, lip pursing, chewing, licking, tooth grinding, or swallowing.
Facial expression suggesting an emotional state, often fear.
1.2.3 MANUAL OR PEDAL
- Indicates principally distal components, bilateral or unilateral.
- Fumbling, tapping, manipulating movements.
- Fumbling or exploratory movements with the hand, directed toward self or environment.
- Movements resembling those intended to lend fur- ther emotional tone to speech.
- Involves predominantly proximal limb or axial muscles producing irregular sequential ballistic movements, such as pedaling, pelvic thrusting, thrashing, rocking movements.
- Increase in rate of ongoing movements or inappro- priately rapid performance of a movement.
A decrease in amplitude and/or rate or arrest of ongoing motor activity.
Impaired communication involving language without dysfunction of relevant primary motor or sensory pathways, manifested as impaired comprehension, anomia, paraphasic errors, or a combination of these.
Inability to perform learned movements spontaneously or on command or imitation despite intact relevant motor and sensory systems and adequate comprehension and cooperation.
Bursts of laughter or giggling, usually without an appropriate affective tone.
Bursts of crying.
Single or repetitive utterances consisting of sounds such as grunts or shrieks.
Single or repetitive utterances consisting of words, phrases, or brief sentences.
Stereotyped, involve only self, virtually independent of environmental influences.
Not stereotyped, involve more than self, environmentally influenced.
Noun: A subjective ictal phenomenon that, in a given patient, may precede an observable seizure; if alone, constitutes a sensory seizure.
A perceptual experience not caused by appropriate stimuli in the external world. Modifies “seizure” or “aura.”
A single, unformed phenomenon involving one pri- mary sensory modality (e.g., somatosensory, visual, au-ditory, olfactory, gustatory, epigastric, or cephalic).
Tingling, numbness, electric shock sensation, pain, sense of movement, or desire to move.
Flashing or flickering lights, spots, simple patterns, scotomata, or amaurosis.
Buzzing, drumming sounds or single tones.
Odor, usually disagreeable.
Taste sensations including acidic, bitter, salty, sweet, or metallic.
Abdominal discomfort including nausea, emptiness, tightness, churning, butterflies, malaise, pain, and hun- ger; sensation may rise to chest or throat. Some phenom- ena may reflect ictal autonomic dysfunction.
Sensation in the head such as light-headedness, tingling or headache.
A sensation consistent with involvement of the autonomic nervous system, including cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal, sudomotor, vasomotor, and thermoregulatory functions. (Thus “autonomic aura”; cf. “autonomic events” 3.0).
Affective, mnemonic, or composite perceptual phenomena including illusory or composite hallucinatory events; these may appear alone or in combination. Included are feelings of depersonalization. These phenomena have subjective qualities similar to those experienced in life but are recognized by the subject as occurring outside of actual context.
Components include fear, depression, joy, and (rarely) anger.
Components that reflect ictal dysmnesia such as feelings of familiarity (de ́ja`-vu) and unfamiliarity (jamais-vu).
A creation of composite perceptions without corresponding external stimuli involving visual, auditory, somatosensory, olfactory, and/or gustatory phenomena. Example: “hearing” and “seeing” people talking.
An alteration of actual percepts involving the visual, auditory, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory systems.
The term describes events in which (1) disturbance of cognition is the predominant or most apparent feature, and (2a) two or more of the following components are involved, or (2b) involvement of such components remains undetermined. Otherwise, use the more specific term (e.g., “mnemonic experiential seizure” or “hallucinatory experiential seizure”).
Components of cognition:
- perception: symbolic conception of sensory infor- mation
- attention: appropriate selection of a principal per- ception or task
- emotion: appropriate affective significance of a per- ception
- memory: ability to store and retrieve percepts or concepts
- executive function: anticipation, selection, monitor- ing of consequences, and initiation of motor activity including praxis, speech
3.1 AUTONOMIC AURA
A sensation consistent with involvement of the autonomic nervous system, including cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal, sudomotor, vasomotor, and thermoregulatory functions (see 184.108.40.206).
3.2 AUTONOMIC SEIZURE
An objectively documented and distinct alteration of autonomic nervous system function involving cardiovascular, pupillary, gastrointestinal, sudomotor, vasomotor, and thermoregularity functions.
Exclusive or virtually exclusive involvement of one side as a motor, sensory, or autonomic phenomenon.
A prefix to other descriptors (e.g., hemiclonic).
4.1.2 GENERALIZED (syn. “bilateral”)
More than minimal involvement of each side as a motor, elementary sensory, or autonomic phenomenon.
Motor component: further modified as
Clear distinction in quantity and/or distribution of be- havior on the two sides.
Virtual bilateral equality in these respects.
4.2 BODY PART
Refers to area involved (i.e., arm, leg, face, trunk, and other).
Modifier describes proximity to the body axis.
Involves trunk, including neck.
4.3.2 PROXIMAL LIMB
Signifies involvement from shoulders to wrist, hip to ankle.
4.3.3 DISTAL LIMB
Indicates involvement of fingers, hands, toes, and/or feet.
MODIFIERS AND DESCRIPTORS OF SEIZURE TIMING
The following terms are listed in the form (adjective, noun, verb) according to principal usage; as adjective unless specified.
Noun: Refers to the number of epileptic seizures within a time period or the number of seizure days per unit of time.
5.1.1 REGULAR, IRREGULAR
Consistent (inconsistent) or predictable (unpredict- able, chaotic) intervals between such events.
- Noun: Incidence of seizures within a given period (usually one or a few days) that exceeds the average incidence over a longer period for the patient.
- Verb: To vary in incidence as above.
5.1.3 PROVOCATIVE FACTOR
Noun: Transient and sporadic endogenous or exog- enous element capable of augmenting seizure incidence in persons with chronic epilepsy and evoking seizures in susceptible individuals without epilepsy.
Occurring in association with transient systemic perturbation such as intercurrent illness, sleep loss, or emotional stress.
Objectively and consistently demonstrated to be evoked by a specific afferent stimulus or by activity of the patient. Afferent stimuli can be elementary [i.e., unstructured (light flashes, startle, a monotone)] or elaborate [i.e., structured, (a symphony)]. Activity may be elementary [e.g., motor (a movement)]; or elaborate [e.g., cognitive function (reading, chess playing)], or both (reading aloud).
5.2 STATE DEPENDENT
Occurring exclusively or primarily in the various stages of drowsiness, sleep, or arousal.
Seizures occurring principally or exclusively in any one phase of the menstrual cycle.
Time between the beginning of initial seizure manifestations, such as the aura, and the cessation of experi- enced or observed seizure activity. Does not include nonspecific seizure premonitions or postictal states.
6.1 STATUS EPILEPTICUS
A seizure that shows no clinical signs of arresting after a duration encompassing the great majority of seizures of that type in most patients or recurrent seizures without interictal resumption of baseline central nervous system function.
A multicomponent assessment of a seizure by observers and the patient. Components primarily of observer assessment include duration, extent of motor involvement, impairment of cognitive interaction with environment intraictally, maximal number of seizures per unit of time. Components primarily of patient assessment: extent of injury; emotional, social, and vocational consequences of the attack.
A preictal phenomenon. A subjective or objective clinical alteration (e.g., ill-localized sensation or agitation) that heralds the onset of an epileptic seizure but does not form part of it.
A transient clinical abnormality of central nervous system function that appears or becomes accentuated when clinical signs of the ictus have ended.
9.1 LATERALIZING [TODD’S (OR BRAVAIS’)] PHENOMENON
Any unilateral postictal dysfunction relating to motor, language, sensory, and/or integrative functions including visual, auditory, or somatosensory neglect phenomena.
9.2 NONLATERALIZING PHENOMENON
Impaired cognition, amnesia, psychosis.
9.2.1 IMPAIRED COGNITION
Decreased cognitive performance involving one or more of perception, attention, emotion, memory, execution, praxis, speech (cf., Dyscognitive, 2.3).
220.127.116.11 ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA
Impaired ability to remember new material.
18.104.22.168 RETROGRADE AMNESIA
Impaired ability to recall previously remembered ma- terial.
Misinterpretation of external world in an awake, alert person; involves thought disorder of emotion and socialization.
Warren T. Blume—Chair, Hans O. Lu ̈ders, Eli Mizrahi, Carlo Tassinari, Walter van Emde Boas, and Jerome Engel, Jr., Ex-officio. ILAE Commission Report Glossary of Descriptive Terminology for Ictal Semiology: Report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia, 42(9):1212–1218, 2001
--Jannick Brennum 25. sep 2012, 02:15 (UTC)